What chemicals are used in "fracking"?
The hydraulic fracturing consists mostly of water and sand, which make up 98 to 99.5 percent of the fluid. In addition, chemical additives are used. The exact formulation varies depending on the well. A typical fracture treatment will use very low concentrations of between 3 and 12 additive chemicals, depending on the characteristics of the water and the shale formation being fractured. Each component serves a specific purpose. For example, the addition of friction reducers allows the fracturing fluids and sand, or other solid materials called "proppants," to be pumped to the target zone at a higher rate and reduced pressue than if water alone were used. In addition to friction reducers, other additives include biocides to prevent microorganism growth and to reduce biofouling of the fractures, oxygen scavengers and other stabilizers to prevent corrosion of metal pipes, and acids that are used to remove drilling mud damage within the wellbore area. These fluids are used to create the fractures in the formation and to carry the propping agent (typically silica sand), which is deposited in the induced fractures to keep them from closing up.

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1. Do companies have a right to drill within the City?
2. Are oil and gas companies allowed to use Lafayette water?
3. How does approval for oil and gas activity occur?
4. What is the purpose of a Special Use Review?
5. What is hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking")?
6. Are drilling and fracking the same thing?
7. How can "fracking" affect ground water?
8. What chemicals are used in "fracking"?
9. Can the City force co-location of wells?
10. What are the City's setback requirements for new wells?
11. How many wells are within the City?
12. Once a well is capped, can it be reentered?
13. What is the surface owners' rights related to oil and gas extraction?
14. When purchasing property, are the mineral rights included?
15. Can an existing non-fracked well be fracked without additional approval?
16. Can the City provide input for new wells proposed near the city limits?
17. How are well locations determined?
18. Who, at the government level, is involved in approving oil and gas extraction?
19. What rights does the City have regarding the regulation of oil and gas extraction within the City?
20. What would a moratorium prevent and what would it allow?
21. It appears the chemicals used in fracking have changed over the years. Why has this occurred?
22. Do air, noise and visual mitigation requirements apply?
23. Has there been a study on how trucks will impact public roads? Who will pay for the repair work needed on these roads?
24. How will the City regulate air pollution from the dust, vehicles, trucks, compressors, etc.? Who will monitor the pollution?
25. Is there a way to know which chemicals are used in fracking specific wells?